Universal Windows Platform – Noughts and Crosses

Noughts and Crosses demonstrates how to use a Grid to implement the Game of Tic Tac Toe or Noughts and Crosses

Step 1

If not already, follow Setup and Start on how to Install and get Started with Visual Studio 2017 or in Windows 10 choose Start, and then from the Start Menu find and select Visual Studio 2017.

vs2017

Step 2

Once Visual Studio Community 2017 has started, from the Menu choose File, then New then Project…

vs2017-file-new-project

Step 3

From New Project choose Visual C# from Installed, Templates then choose Blank App (Universal Windows) and then type in a Name and select a Location and then select Ok to create the Project
vs2017-new-project-window

Step 4

Then in New Universal Windows Project you need to select the Target Version this should be at least the Windows 10 Fall Creators Update (10.0; Build 16299) and the Minimum Version to be the same.

vs2017-target-platform

The Target Version will control what features your application can use in Windows 10 so by picking the most recent version you’ll be able to take advantage of those features. To make sure you always have the most recent version, in Visual Studio 2017 select Tools Extensions and Updates… then and then see if there are any Updates

Step 5

Once done select from the Menu, Project, then Add New Item…

vs2017-project-add-new-item

Step 6

From the Add New Item window select Visual C#, then Code from Installed then select Code File from the list, then type in the Name as Library.cs before selecting Add to add the file to the Project

vs2017-add-new-item-library

Step 7

Once in the Code View for Library.cs the following should be entered:

using System;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using Windows.Foundation;
using Windows.UI;
using Windows.UI.Popups;
using Windows.UI.Xaml;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Controls;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Input;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Media;
using Windows.UI.Xaml.Shapes;

public class Library
{
    private const string app_title = "Noughts and Crosses";
    private const char blank = ' ';
    private const char nought = 'O';
    private const char cross = 'X';
    private const int size = 3;

    private bool _won = false;
    private char _piece = blank;
    private char[,] _board = new char[size, size];

    public void Show(string content, string title)
    {
        IAsyncOperation<IUICommand> command = new MessageDialog(content, title).ShowAsync();
    }

    public async Task<bool> ConfirmAsync(string content, string title, string ok, string cancel)
    {
        bool result = false;
        MessageDialog dialog = new MessageDialog(content, title);
        dialog.Commands.Add(new UICommand(ok, new UICommandInvokedHandler((cmd) => result = true)));
        dialog.Commands.Add(new UICommand(cancel, new UICommandInvokedHandler((cmd) => result = false)));
        await dialog.ShowAsync();
        return result;
    }

    private bool Winner()
    {
        return
        (_board[0, 0] == _piece && _board[0, 1] == _piece && _board[0, 2] == _piece) ||
        (_board[1, 0] == _piece && _board[1, 1] == _piece && _board[1, 2] == _piece) ||
        (_board[2, 0] == _piece && _board[2, 1] == _piece && _board[2, 2] == _piece) ||
        (_board[0, 0] == _piece && _board[1, 0] == _piece && _board[2, 0] == _piece) ||
        (_board[0, 1] == _piece && _board[1, 1] == _piece && _board[2, 1] == _piece) ||
        (_board[0, 2] == _piece && _board[1, 2] == _piece && _board[2, 2] == _piece) ||
        (_board[0, 0] == _piece && _board[1, 1] == _piece && _board[2, 2] == _piece) ||
        (_board[0, 2] == _piece && _board[1, 1] == _piece && _board[2, 0] == _piece);
    }

    private bool Drawn()
    {
        return
        _board[0, 0] != blank && _board[0, 1] != blank && _board[0, 2] != blank &&
        _board[1, 0] != blank && _board[1, 1] != blank && _board[1, 2] != blank &&
        _board[2, 0] != blank && _board[2, 1] != blank && _board[2, 2] != blank;
    }

    private Path Piece()
    {
        Path path = new Path
        {
            StrokeThickness = 5,
            HorizontalAlignment = HorizontalAlignment.Center,
            VerticalAlignment = VerticalAlignment.Center
        };
        if (_piece == cross)
        {
            LineGeometry line1 = new LineGeometry
            {
                StartPoint = new Point(0, 0),
                EndPoint = new Point(60, 60)
            };
            LineGeometry line2 = new LineGeometry
            {
                StartPoint = new Point(60, 0),
                EndPoint = new Point(0, 60)
            };
            GeometryGroup linegroup = new GeometryGroup();
            linegroup.Children.Add(line1);
            linegroup.Children.Add(line2);
            path.Data = linegroup;
            path.Stroke = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.Red);
        }
        else if (_piece == nought)
        {
            EllipseGeometry ellipse = new EllipseGeometry
            {
                Center = new Point(30, 30),
                RadiusX = 30,
                RadiusY = 30
            };
            path.Data = ellipse;
            path.Stroke = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.Blue);
        }
        return path;
    }

    private void Add(ref Grid grid, int row, int column)
    {
        Grid element = new Grid()
        {
            Height = 80,
            Width = 80,
            Margin = new Thickness(10),
            Background = new SolidColorBrush(Colors.WhiteSmoke)
        };
        element.Tapped += (object sender, TappedRoutedEventArgs e) =>
        {
            if (!_won)
            {
                element = (Grid)sender;
                if ((element.Children.Count < 1))
                {
                    element.Children.Add(Piece());
                    _board[(int)element.GetValue(Grid.RowProperty),
                    (int)element.GetValue(Grid.ColumnProperty)] = _piece;
                }
                if (Winner())
                {
                    _won = true;
                    Show($"{_piece} wins!", app_title);
                }
                else if (Drawn())
                {
                    Show("Draw!", app_title);
                }
                else
                {
                    _piece = (_piece == cross ? nought : cross); // Swap Players
                }
            }
            else
            {
                Show("Game Over!", app_title);
            }
        };
        element.SetValue(Grid.ColumnProperty, column);
        element.SetValue(Grid.RowProperty, row);
        grid.Children.Add(element);
    }

    private void Layout(ref Grid grid)
    {
        grid.Children.Clear();
        grid.ColumnDefinitions.Clear();
        grid.RowDefinitions.Clear();
        // Setup Grid
        for (int index = 0; (index < size); index++)
        {
            grid.RowDefinitions.Add(new RowDefinition());
            grid.ColumnDefinitions.Add(new ColumnDefinition());
        }
        // Setup Board
        for (int row = 0; (row < size); row++)
        {
            for (int column = 0; (column < size); column++)
            {
                Add(ref grid, row, column);
                _board[row, column] = blank;
            }
        }
    }

    public async void New(Grid grid)
    {
        Layout(ref grid);
        _won = false;
        _piece = await ConfirmAsync("Who goes First?", app_title,
            nought.ToString(), cross.ToString()) ? nought : cross;
    }
}

In the Library.cs there are using statements to include the necessary functionality. There’s a two-dimensional array called _board which represents what will appear in the game. The Winner and Drawn methods represent the winning and drawing rules for the game, the Piece is for the X and O. The Layout method is used to create the visual layout of the game plus control how the game will play and is used by the New to start the game.

Step 8

In the Solution Explorer select MainPage.xaml

vs2017-mainpage

Step 9

From the Menu choose View and then Designer

vs2017-view-designer

Step 10

The Design View will be displayed along with the XAML View and in this between the Grid and /Grid elements, enter the following XAML:

<Viewbox>
	<Grid Margin="50" Name="Display" HorizontalAlignment="Center" VerticalAlignment="Center"/>
</Viewbox>
<CommandBar VerticalAlignment="Bottom">
	<AppBarButton Name="New" Icon="Page2" Label="New" Click="New_Click"/>
</CommandBar>

The first block of XAML the main user interface of the Application, this features a Grid where the noughts or crosses will appear. The second block of XAML is is the CommandBar which contains the New – to start a game/p>

Step 11

From the Menu choose View and then Code

vs2017-view-code

Step 12

Once in the Code View, below the end of public MainPage() { … } the following Code should be entered:

Library library = new Library();

private void New_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
{
	library.New(Display);
}

Below the MainPage() Method an instance of the Library Class is created, then in the New_Click Event the New Method to display the Game Board in the Grid

Step 13

That completes the Universal Windows Platform Application so Save the Project then in Visual Studio select the Local Machine to run the Application

vs2017-local-machine

Step 14

After the Application has started running you can then tap the New Button, then choose X or O then can start playing the game

ran-noughts-and-crosses

Step 15

To Exit the Application select the Close button in the top right of the Application

vs2017-close

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